Sam Debruyn

Cloud Data Solution Architect

Specialized in Microsoft Azure, Fabric & modern data stack. Microsoft Data Platform MVP. Public speaker & meetup organizer. FOSS contributor.

Sam Debruyn

Connect to Fabric Lakehouses & Warehouses from Python code

4 minutes

In this post, I will show you how to connect to your Microsoft Fabric Lakehouses and Warehouses from Python.

Python and Fabric

Packages & dependencies

To connect to Fabric, we’ll use the Microsoft ODBC Driver. This driver is available for Windows, Linux, and macOS. Click on your operating system to download and install the driver:

Next, we’ll need a Python package to connect using ODBC and a Python package to authenticate with Azure Active Directory. We can install them like so:

1pip install pyodbc azure-identity

Authentication

Next, we have to decide how you want to authenticate. Fabric relies on Azure Active Directory for authentication. While in the future it will be possible to use fancy mechanisms like Service Principals and Managed Identities, for now, you can only authenticate as yourself. This still leaves us with many authentication options on the table:

All of the options above use an external factor to authenticate, which makes our code quite simple. For example, if you want to use your Azure CLI login session, you can use the following code:

1from azure.identity import AzureCliCredential
2
3credential = AzureCliCredential()

The code is similar for the other options. If you want to use a browser to authenticate, you can use the following code:

1from azure.identity import InteractiveBrowserCredential
2
3credential = InteractiveBrowserCredential()

Building the connection string

Now that we have our authentication mechanism in place, we can build the connection string. The connection string is a standard ODBC connection string and for Fabric, it looks like this:

1sql_endpoint = "" # copy and paste the SQL endpoint from any of the Lakehouses or Warehouses in your Fabric Workspace
2database = "" # copy and paste the name of the Lakehouse or Warehouse you want to connect to
3
4connection_string = f"Driver={{ODBC Driver 18 for SQL Server}};Server={sql_endpoint},1433;Database=f{database};Encrypt=Yes;TrustServerCertificate=No"

Building the connection

To build the connection, we have to first use our credentials from above to retrieve an access token we can pass to Fabric. This is all very technical, but you can follow along with the comments in the code below:

 1import struct
 2from itertools import chain, repeat
 3import pyodbc
 4
 5
 6# prepare the access token
 7
 8token_object = credential.get_token("https://database.windows.net//.default") # Retrieve an access token valid to connect to SQL databases
 9token_as_bytes = bytes(token.token, "UTF-8") # Convert the token to a UTF-8 byte string
10encoded_bytes = bytes(chain.from_iterable(zip(value, repeat(0)))) # Encode the bytes to a Windows byte string
11token_bytes = struct.pack("<i", len(encoded_bytes)) + encoded_bytes # Package the token into a bytes object
12attrs_before = {1256: token_bytes}  # Attribute pointing to SQL_COPT_SS_ACCESS_TOKEN to pass access token to the driver
13
14
15# build the connection
16
17connection = pyodbc.connect(connection_string, attrs_before=attrs_before)

Now we can use the connection to run SQL queries:

1cursor = connection.cursor()
2cursor.execute("SELECT * FROM sys.tables")
3rows = cursor.fetchall()
4print(rows) # this will print all the tables available in the lakehouse or warehouse

Make sure to close the cursor and the connection when you’re done:

1cursor.close()
2connection.close()

The whole API to query databases from Python is documented in PEP 249 . More pyodbc documentation is available in the project’s wiki .

Putting it all together

Below you can find the complete example, merging all the steps from above:

 1import struct
 2from itertools import chain, repeat
 3
 4import pyodbc
 5from azure.identity import AzureCliCredential
 6
 7credential = AzureCliCredential() # use your authentication mechanism of choice
 8sql_endpoint = "" # copy and paste the SQL endpoint from any of the Lakehouses or Warehouses in your Fabric Workspace
 9database = "" # copy and paste the name of the Lakehouse or Warehouse you want to connect to
10
11connection_string = f"Driver={{ODBC Driver 18 for SQL Server}};Server={sql_endpoint},1433;Database=f{database};Encrypt=Yes;TrustServerCertificate=No"
12
13token_object = credential.get_token("https://database.windows.net//.default") # Retrieve an access token valid to connect to SQL databases
14token_as_bytes = bytes(token.token, "UTF-8") # Convert the token to a UTF-8 byte string
15encoded_bytes = bytes(chain.from_iterable(zip(value, repeat(0)))) # Encode the bytes to a Windows byte string
16token_bytes = struct.pack("<i", len(encoded_bytes)) + encoded_bytes # Package the token into a bytes object
17attrs_before = {1256: token_bytes}  # Attribute pointing to SQL_COPT_SS_ACCESS_TOKEN to pass access token to the driver
18
19connection = pyodbc.connect(connection_string, attrs_before=attrs_before)
20cursor = connection.cursor()
21cursor.execute("SELECT * FROM sys.tables")
22rows = cursor.fetchall()
23print(rows)
24
25cursor.close()
26connection.close()

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